Ureaplasma is a kind of bacteria, which originates from the family of bacteria most commonly known as Mycoplasma. Mycoplasma are the smallest living species among the prokaryotes and their biological properties include the lack of a cell wall, Gram stain reaction and their neurosusceptibility to common antimicrobial prescribed medicines, such as beta-lactum. These kinds of bacteria are extremely difficult to spot and treat, as they are microscopic.
Another characteristic that differentiates them from the normal bacteria is that they lack a cellular boundary or cell wall. This is what makes them less susceptible to common antibiotics as the outer cell wall of the bacteria assists the drug to attack the bacteria. This makes them unique as their resistance to regular antibiotics, like penicillin, makes them difficult to treat.
Mycoplasma organism usually infects the respiratory tract and urogenital tracts in humans. Ureaplasma bacteria however is, as its name suggests, usually found in the urogenital tract and the major root cause of most urinary tract infections. This bacterium affects both men and women and in young men, it is associated with non-gonococcal, non-chlamydial urethritis (inflammation of the urethra). In men, the Ureaplasma infection can occur and can cause nonchlamydial nongonococcal urethritis. 40%-80% of women, who are sexually active, are also affected by the Ureaplasma infection and this organism is also found in women, when they are not sexually active or in the absence of the disease itself.
Like any other form or type of bacteria, these bacteria can be passed from person to person, as well as through direct sexual contact. However, they are not considered sexually transmitted infections (STIs). As compared to other STIs, like Chlamydia and gonorrhea, Ureaplasma infection doesn’t pose a very high rate of transmission through sexual contact. Moreover, it is not considered an STI, because it can be generally found in the genital tracts of healthy individuals, as compared to STIs that always cause disease.
The Ureaplasma infection can be transferred vertically from an expecting mother to her child, either at the time of the birth, by nosocomial acquisition through transplanted tissues or in the uterus. Ureaplasma infection can occur in the reproductive tract of both men and women and it is often difficult for the medical professional to refer to them as reproductive tract pathogens as they are also found in healthy couples as well as those who are infertile.
These bacteria can lie dormant without causing any disease and showing any symptoms. In addition to that, if the cervical cultures do indicate the presence of Ureaplasma and mycoplasma, it doesn’t in any way indicate sexual misconduct or infidelity by a partner.
While men can experience symptomatic prostatitis or epididymitis, women experience symptoms less frequently but they can range from dysuria to abnormal vaginal discharge. There are several symptoms of the disease or the Ureaplasma infection, which include genital discharge or experiencing excruciating burning pain while urinating. For accurate results, separate samples of the reproductive secretions of both partners should be tested for a live culture, including sperm and cervical mucus.
Please remember that it is impossible to diagnose any urethral infections form the symptoms – a test is necessary. Testing for Ureaplasma is done by PCR although cultures are also available but less reliable.
When the Ureaplasma infection is present in a woman’s cervical section, it can unintentionally be transferred into the uterine cavity through the insertion of a catheter into the uterus at the time of embryo transfer or intrauterine insemination. Many researchers have pointed out that the presence of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma can play a dominant role in the infertility and miscarriage in a small number of cases, but they have yet to prove how they are able to cause impairment to the reproductive function. Due to this reason alone, many clinics and doctors don’t commonly treat Ureaplasma or mycoplasma.
There are several ways to treat Ureaplasma infection, and the most common is to take antibiotics like a tetracycline or a fluoroquinolone. If the doctor tests you and your partner, and the cervical cultures for Ureaplasma and mycoplasma are positive, then they will likely be treated with antibiotics like doxycycline. Azithromycin also works and Moxifloxacin is used as a last resort.
A dental abscess is also known by the names of tooth dentoalveolar or root abscess. The condition is characterized by the local accumulation of pus in the adjoining area of the infected tooth. The most commonly occurring abscess is the periapical abscess, followed closely by the periodontal abscess.
The aetiology of the disease starts from the centre of the tooth which is often dead. The reason for this may be tooth decay or broken teeth. Many a times, failed root canal procedures also give rise to dental abscess.
You can find our more about the signs and symptoms at this private medical website.
Dental abscesses are somewhat difficult to treat. It is for this purpose that antibiotics are prescribed for the resolution of a tooth abscess. Some of the widely used antibiotics for dentoalveolar abscesses are:
A full list is provided here.
The primary function of antibiotics is to kill bacteria. These are popular and the most effective way of fighting several infections. For an abscessed tooth, antibiotics are prescribed in the form of a pill or in liquid form. The treatment lasts for around 7 to 10 days.
Antibiotics inhibit the further growth of any bacteria and help prevent serious medical conditions such as cellulitis. These antibiotics are used ancillary to procedures such as root canal treatment to drain the abscess and extract the affected tooth.
The success rate of this therapy is extremely high. The combined efforts prevent the spread of bacteria to the deeper levels of the bones. The only time that these antibiotics will not yield proper results is when they have not been taken as prescribed.
You can find out more about how antibiotics work here.
Understandably, a wide majority of the medicines have side effects. But these are minimal when compared to the advantages rendered by the medicinal drugs. Moreover, these side effects do not last for long. You may talk to your doctor if you are experiencing unbearable discomfort as a result of any kind of medicine.
Some of the side effects experienced in a few cases are:
Vaginal Bacteriosis, or more commonly referred to as Bacterial Vaginosis, is a leading vaginal infection in women of child-bearing age. Although one of the primary causes for this infection is having sexual contact with a new partner, this condition is not a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI).
It is most commonly confused with other vaginal infections such as candidiasis and trichomoniasis. Both of these infections are caused by bacteria. On the other hand, Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) arises when there is an imbalance in the natural flora (friendly bacteria) of the vagina. The natural flora of the vagina is predominantly comprised of 95% Lactobacillus bacteria which limits the growth of unhealthy bacteria within the female genitalia.
Although the precise cause of BV is not known, the following factors are said to contribute towards the imbalance in Lactobacilli within the vagina:
More on the causes here.
Symptoms are the feelings that the patient experiences that are particular to a particular condition. In the case of BV, about 50% of the women are asymptomatic. Nonetheless, some of the common symptoms are:
Signs refer to the changes that the doctor or other people will notice. These include:
The following women are at a higher risk of getting Bacterial Vaginosis:
The diagnosis of BV is established through a pelvic exam and after analyzing a sample of vaginal discharge. These include wet mount, Whiff Test, Oligonucleotide probes and checking vaginal pH. A positive Whiff test and detection of clue cells in the vaginal discharge are confirmatory factors of BV.
Antibiotics such as Metronidazole (Flagyl), Clindamycin and Tinidazole are prescribed and may be taken orally, or ovules and creams can be used on the vagina. Pregnant ladies however, have to take medication orally. The treatment continues for 7 days.
Although these are effective treatment options, 25% women report a recurrence of the infection within the next 4 weeks.
You can find out more about treating recurrent BV at this BMJ article.
BV increases the risk of:
It is necessary to practice good hygiene and use protection if you have a female sex partner.
With the help of the above information, you will be able to make sure that you deal with Bacterial Vaginosis effectively.
As the symptoms for Bacterial Vagninosis can be similar to other diseases, it is essential that patients are tested for a variety of potential causes and also that sexually transmitted infections are ruled out. The sort of testing that should be performed should include a microscopy, culture and PCR. If you take a look at this page on TheSTIClinic.com website then this will give you a good overview of the testing that you should be recommending to patients.
Saxenda, an obesity drug that has been approved for marketing in the US and EU has, in recent clinical trials, proved to have positive effects on glucose levels and blood pressure levels in obese patients. The main objective of this trial was to determine whether or not the obesity drug would also stave off the development of Type-2 diabetes in obese patients. The drug’s relationship with diabetes has not yet been established but the trial did glean some interesting results and, all in favour of the drug and its affects on diabetes. What does that mean for the future of Saxenda here in Europe? The results were presented at the recent annual Endocrine Society (ENDO) meeting in San Diego.
63% of the 3,731 patients taking the drug who were also on a calorie restricted diet and who took part in a regime involving increased physical activity, experienced 5% weight loss at the end of 56 weeks. This contrasts greatly with the 27% of those on the placebo who experienced a similar weight reduction. One third of all of the patients taking Saxenda lost 10% or more of their body weight compared with just 10% of the placebo group. Primarily, the effects on blood pressure and glucose levels are exciting and might also have Saxenda on the market as a diabetes preventative as well as a weight loss drug in time.
Although, the drug has joined Belviq, Qsymia and Contrave in the US, none of them (other than Contrave) have made headway here in Europe since their US approval. Conrave will be known as Mysimba in the EU.
Saxenda, which is the brand name for Liraglutide, works by slowing the process of food leaving the stomach. The European Medicine’s Agency (EMA) did not approve the treatment initially because long term effects of the injection are not yet known and they believe further safety studies are required. Those trials have completed and the medication has been approved. It is already available to private patients at The Online Clinic.
Obesity drugs are few and far between these days and bodies like the EMA are right to be careful about what they consider for approval considering the history of obesity drugs like Reductil. We don’t know for sure but risk factors related to certain drugs might have meant patient health was compromised. These days, it’s vital to be careful about what we approve for market and safety studies are a priority. Obesity treatments like these are not a quick fix option, they are not prescribed alone without the aid of a healthy diet and exercise regimen, and they are certainly not for everyone. They might however help those for whom all other possibilities have been exhausted and decrease the number of invasive bariatric surgeries taking place every year. These surgeries are not only serious operations but are expensive too and a great strain on NHS resources.
Welcome to study medicine. A guide dedicated to our medical friends. We know all too well the struggles and challenges of getting through the life long education that is medicine!
Our team of medical professionals are here for support and guidance whether you are a first year student or 6 years into your career we hope that this website will be informative.
Our team are available for support whenever you need it so please do not hesitate to contact us using the form on the on the contact page.